The district of Nadia is situated in the heart of the Bengal delta held within the arms of the Ganga, namely, the Bhagirathi on the West and Mathabhanga on the North. The entire district lies in the alluvial plain of the Ganga and its tributaries. Most districts in West Bengal take their name from the headquarters station of the district, but Nadia district takes its name not from Krishnagar, the headquarter but from Nadia or Nabadwip hallowed by the memory of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who was born here on 18th February, 1486. The British district of Nadia was formed in 1787. The present district of Nadia after partition was formed by Notification No.545-GA dated 23rd February, 1948.
The district of Nadia is bounded on the north and north-west by the district of Murshidabad. On the south-east and east it is bounded by the Republic of Bangladesh. In the south and south-east the district is bounded by the district of North 24-Parganas.The shape of the district is irregular, lying North to South. The district is about 46ft. above the mean sea-level and the tropic of cancer divides the district into two parts.
For administrative convenience Nadia district is divided into four Subdivisions – Krishnagar Sadar, Ranaghat. Kalyani and Tehatta. The district has an area of 3927 sq kms having a population of 46,04,827 as per Census 2001. Out of that SC & ST population are 13,65,985 and 1,13891 respectively. The district has 17 Panchayet Samities consist of 187 Gram Panchyets and 8 Municipalities. Total number of Police Stations in the district is 19. The density of population in this district is 1173 persons per sq km. Nadia district has 950 females as against 1000 males. The majority of the people of the district speaks Bengali followed by Hindi, Santali and other. Religionwise about 73.75% are Hindus and 25.42% are Muslims. In the district of Nadia the percentage of literacy by sex is 72.30 (Male) & 59.60 (Female) as per Cencus 2001. The important rivers of the district are Bhagirathi, Churni, Mathabhanga, Ichamati and jalangi.
The climate of Nadia district is characterized by an oppressive hot summer; high humidity all the year round and well distributed rainfall during the south west monsoon season. The cold season is from about the end of November to the end of February.
Krishnanagar is the most important town of this district, as it is the district headquarter of Nadia. It is on the bank of river Jalangi. The palace of Nadiaraj (Rajbari) built here is a prominent place of tourist attraction though the remnants of the past glory have been eroded and only a dilapidated structure of the exquisite places with carving on its inner walls exists today. Krishnagar is famour for world-class clay models & terracotta works. It can claim a proud tradition for the sweets- Sarpuria & Sarbhaja.
Kalyani is another important town of this district and sub divisional headquarter. It was identified (and named) by Dr. B. C. Roy, Ex Chief Minister of West Bengal and act as an alternative to the city of Kolkata, from which it is about 50 km away. Two Universities (Gen & Agri) are situated in this sub division. Two Engineering Colleges and newly established Medical College have added a laurel to its crown.
River Churni at Ranaghat
is one of the most important towns of the district on the bank of river Churni and the sub divisional headquarter, situated 74 kilometers north of Kolkata.
Tehatta is another important sub divisional town. It is the newest subdivision in the district of Nadia.